In article , Todd
On 03/17/2013 04:01 PM, Billy wrote:
My only point is that there is a certain set of concerns when you become
a vegetarian,including B12, tryptophan, or zinc.
Don't forget Acetyl L-Carnitine and Carnosine.
That concern didn't last long. Apparently L-carnitine is synthesized by
the body as needed, and an excess leads to cardiovascular disease.
Intestinal microbiota metabolism of l-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat,
Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline and phosphatidylcholine
produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a
proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We demonstrate
here that metabolism by intestinal microbiota of dietary l-carnitine, a
trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also produces TMAO and accelerates
atherosclerosis in mice. Omnivorous human subjects produced more TMAO
than did vegans or vegetarians following ingestion of l-carnitine
through a microbiota-dependent mechanism. The presence of specific
bacterial taxa in human feces was associated with both plasma TMAO
concentration and dietary status. Plasma l-carnitine levels in subjects
undergoing cardiac evaluation (n = 2,595) predicted increased risks for
both prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and incident major adverse
cardiac events (myocardial infarction, stroke or death), but only among
subjects with concurrently high TMAO levels. Chronic dietary l-carnitine
supplementation in mice altered cecal microbial composition, markedly
enhanced synthesis of TMA and TMAO, and increased atherosclerosis, but
this did not occur if intestinal microbiota was concurrently suppressed.
In mice with an intact intestinal microbiota, dietary supplementation
with TMAO or either carnitine or choline reduced in vivo reverse
cholesterol transport. Intestinal microbiota may thus contribute to the
well-established link between high levels of red meat consumption and
I think it is the height
of arrogance to think our science can tell us everything to supplement
with when you are doing something unnatural.
Be a vegetarian, and watch your B12, tryptophan, or zinc levels, or
become a sedentary herbivore and get heart disease. Any other choices?
The Gate Keepers