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Old 10-08-2018, 12:28 AM posted to rec.food.cooking
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Default dsi1 : Of Hawaiian Interest (Sugar + Electricity)

Pretty cool, I did not know this:

https://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-histo...me-electrified

Why Hawaii Got Electricity Before Most of the Rest of the World

In 1881, Thomas Edison convinced King Kalakaua that electric streetlamps were superior to gas

'In 1881, King David Kalakaua of Hawaii went on a world tour, the first of its kind for a sitting monarch. He circumnavigated the globe, stopping in Asia, India, Egypt, Europe, and the United States. Among other things, he sought to encourage immigration from the Asia-Pacific region, as Hawaiis dwindling population had created a labor shortage on its sugar plantations. But the king also wanted to introduce the culture of Hawaii to the world, and he was curious about modern science and technology.

When he arrived in Paris in August 1881, the International Exposition of Electricity was just getting under way. The exposition showcased the latest advancements in electrical technology, such as dynamos, batteries, and lighting. The first International Electrical Congress also convened during the exposition, with participants presenting papers, discussing research, and deciding on definitions for the ampere, the volt, the ohm, and other electrical units.

King Kalakaua visited the exposition and was eager to learn more. George Jones [PDF], cofounder of The New York Times, met the king in Vienna and promised an introduction to Thomas Edison. That meeting took place on 25 September 1881 in Edisons New York City office. According to The Sun (New York), the king and the inventor discussed not only the technicalities of electric lights but also the business of selling power.

As described in The Sun, Hawaiis attorney general, William N. Armstrong, told Edison that the kingdom had a volcano €œthat burns a thousand million tons of coal a day.€ He jokingly added: €œYou could put your boilers on top of the volcano and get power enough to supply the country.€ Apparently, Edison didnt get the joke and asked if that was where Hawaii mined its coal. Armstrong replied that in fact Hawaii imported its coal from Australia, but the volcano was their great hope. Some people have since speculated that Armstrongs remark indicated an early interest in geothermal power, but it was more likely a failed attempt at humor.

In any event, Kalakaua explained to Edison that he was keen to upgrade the kerosene lamps that lit the streets of Honolulu but couldnt decide between gas and electricity. He wanted to see a full and practical trial of electric lights before deciding. For that, the king had to wait another five years.

On 21 July 1886, Honolulu businessman Charles Otto Berger organized a demonstration of electric lights at Iolani Palace. It drew a crowd of 5,000 spectators and included a Hawaiian band and a military parade.

A few months later, the royal residency and palace grounds were fully illuminated for the kings birthday, on 16 November 1886. [An original chandelier from the throne room is pictured at top, although these days it uses LED lights.] Electric lighting extended to the streets of Honolulu when Princess Kaiulani threw the switch on 23 March 1888.

Two of the greatest challenges to the electrification of Hawaii were getting equipment to the island nation and establishing an appropriate fuel supply. Machinery for the power plants came from the United States, including a turbine manufactured by Leffel & Co., in Springfield, Ohio, dynamos from the Thomson-Houston Co., in Massachusetts, and piping and valves from Risdon Ironworks, in San Francisco.

As for the second challenge, hydroelectric power seemed a natural choice given Hawaiis terrain and wet climate. The Nuuanu stream, about 6 kilometers northeast of the palace, fed the first electric light station that powered Honolulus streetlights. But its water flow was uneven, and so the next station to be built was coal fired.

Interestingly, the electrification of Iolani Palace was not the first demonstration of electric lighting in the Hawaiian Islands. That distinction goes to a sugar mill on Maui owned by sugar magnate Claus Spreckels. On 22 September 1881, Spreckels demonstrated electric lights at Mill No. 1 on his plantation. He realized that artificial lighting would allow his workers to process sugar cane around the clock, thus avoiding the expense of any downtime during peak season. King Kalakaua and members of the royal household inspected Spreckelss mills numerous times. Dowager Queen Emma, the widow of King Kamehameha IV, reportedly exclaimed that the electric lights were like daylight.

At the time, Spreckels held a near monopoly on the sugarcane industry in Hawaii, thanks to his close ties to King Kalakaua. Spreckels had bought political influence by making personal loans to the king and €œgifts€ to the kingdom. When he was initially establishing his first sugar plantation, for example, Spreckels sought water rights for irrigation, but the Hawaiian cabinet balked. After the businessman made certain monetary donations, however, a new cabinet was installed, and they promptly approved Spreckelss water rights as well as the construction of a 65-km-long irrigation ditch, the longest in the kingdom at the time.

By 1886, though, Spreckels and the king had fallen out. Kalakaua, looking to diversify his kingdoms business base, viewed electricity and other new technologies as a way to encourage investment. After the successful display of electric streetlights, the Honolulu company E.O. Hall & Son began installing generators in homes and on sugarcane plantations. By 1890, almost 800 Honolulu residences were enjoying the luxury of electricity, at a time when most people in Europe and the United States still did without. A year later, several officers of E.O. Hall formed the Hawaiian Electric Co. (HECO).

The king didnt live long enough to see the completion of all that he had set in motion. In 1891, while visiting California, he died of kidney disease. His sister Liliuokalani succeeded him, but her reign proved brief. Five days before the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown in 1893, in one of her last official acts, the queen approved legislation for the Hawaiian government to provide and regulate the production of electricity in Honolulu. HECO, the only bidder, was granted a 10-year lease to supply power to the people of Honolulu. The provisional Hawaiian government retained control over the original Nuuanu Electric Power Station to power the streetlights.

On 23 March 2018, the 130th anniversary of the illumination of Honolulu, an IEEE Milestone was dedicated to €œthe electric lighting of the Kingdom of Hawaii 1886€“1888.€ Spreckelss sugar mill on Maui no longer exists, but Iolani Palace is open to the public Monday through Saturday, 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.

An abridged version of this article appears in the April 2018 print issue as €œEdison and the King.€

Part of a continuing series looking at photographs of historical artifacts that embrace the boundless potential of technology...'

About the Author
Allison Marsh is an associate professor of history at the University of South Carolina and codirector of the Ann Johnson Institute for Science, Technology & Society there.

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Old 10-08-2018, 06:30 AM posted to rec.food.cooking
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On Thursday, August 9, 2018 at 1:28:16 PM UTC-10, GM wrote:
Pretty cool, I did not know this:

https://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-histo...me-electrified

Why Hawaii Got Electricity Before Most of the Rest of the World

In 1881, Thomas Edison convinced King Kalakaua that electric streetlamps were superior to gas

'In 1881, King David Kalakaua of Hawaii went on a world tour, the first of its kind for a sitting monarch. He circumnavigated the globe, stopping in Asia, India, Egypt, Europe, and the United States. Among other things, he sought to encourage immigration from the Asia-Pacific region, as Hawaiis dwindling population had created a labor shortage on its sugar plantations. But the king also wanted to introduce the culture of Hawaii to the world, and he was curious about modern science and technology.

When he arrived in Paris in August 1881, the International Exposition of Electricity was just getting under way. The exposition showcased the latest advancements in electrical technology, such as dynamos, batteries, and lighting. The first International Electrical Congress also convened during the exposition, with participants presenting papers, discussing research, and deciding on definitions for the ampere, the volt, the ohm, and other electrical units.

King Kalakaua visited the exposition and was eager to learn more. George Jones [PDF], cofounder of The New York Times, met the king in Vienna and promised an introduction to Thomas Edison. That meeting took place on 25 September 1881 in Edisons New York City office. According to The Sun (New York), the king and the inventor discussed not only the technicalities of electric lights but also the business of selling power.

As described in The Sun, Hawaiis attorney general, William N. Armstrong, told Edison that the kingdom had a volcano €œthat burns a thousand million tons of coal a day.€ He jokingly added: €œYou could put your boilers on top of the volcano and get power enough to supply the country.€ Apparently, Edison didnt get the joke and asked if that was where Hawaii mined its coal. Armstrong replied that in fact Hawaii imported its coal from Australia, but the volcano was their great hope. Some people have since speculated that Armstrongs remark indicated an early interest in geothermal power, but it was more likely a failed attempt at humor.

In any event, Kalakaua explained to Edison that he was keen to upgrade the kerosene lamps that lit the streets of Honolulu but couldnt decide between gas and electricity. He wanted to see a full and practical trial of electric lights before deciding. For that, the king had to wait another five years.

On 21 July 1886, Honolulu businessman Charles Otto Berger organized a demonstration of electric lights at Iolani Palace. It drew a crowd of 5,000 spectators and included a Hawaiian band and a military parade.

A few months later, the royal residency and palace grounds were fully illuminated for the kings birthday, on 16 November 1886. [An original chandelier from the throne room is pictured at top, although these days it uses LED lights.] Electric lighting extended to the streets of Honolulu when Princess Kaiulani threw the switch on 23 March 1888.

Two of the greatest challenges to the electrification of Hawaii were getting equipment to the island nation and establishing an appropriate fuel supply. Machinery for the power plants came from the United States, including a turbine manufactured by Leffel & Co., in Springfield, Ohio, dynamos from the Thomson-Houston Co., in Massachusetts, and piping and valves from Risdon Ironworks, in San Francisco.

As for the second challenge, hydroelectric power seemed a natural choice given Hawaiis terrain and wet climate. The Nuuanu stream, about 6 kilometers northeast of the palace, fed the first electric light station that powered Honolulus streetlights. But its water flow was uneven, and so the next station to be built was coal fired.

Interestingly, the electrification of Iolani Palace was not the first demonstration of electric lighting in the Hawaiian Islands. That distinction goes to a sugar mill on Maui owned by sugar magnate Claus Spreckels. On 22 September 1881, Spreckels demonstrated electric lights at Mill No. 1 on his plantation. He realized that artificial lighting would allow his workers to process sugar cane around the clock, thus avoiding the expense of any downtime during peak season. King Kalakaua and members of the royal household inspected Spreckelss mills numerous times. Dowager Queen Emma, the widow of King Kamehameha IV, reportedly exclaimed that the electric lights were like daylight.

At the time, Spreckels held a near monopoly on the sugarcane industry in Hawaii, thanks to his close ties to King Kalakaua. Spreckels had bought political influence by making personal loans to the king and €œgifts€ to the kingdom. When he was initially establishing his first sugar plantation, for example, Spreckels sought water rights for irrigation, but the Hawaiian cabinet balked. After the businessman made certain monetary donations, however, a new cabinet was installed, and they promptly approved Spreckelss water rights as well as the construction of a 65-km-long irrigation ditch, the longest in the kingdom at the time.

By 1886, though, Spreckels and the king had fallen out. Kalakaua, looking to diversify his kingdoms business base, viewed electricity and other new technologies as a way to encourage investment. After the successful display of electric streetlights, the Honolulu company E.O. Hall & Son began installing generators in homes and on sugarcane plantations. By 1890, almost 800 Honolulu residences were enjoying the luxury of electricity, at a time when most people in Europe and the United States still did without. A year later, several officers of E.O. Hall formed the Hawaiian Electric Co. (HECO).

The king didnt live long enough to see the completion of all that he had set in motion. In 1891, while visiting California, he died of kidney disease. His sister Liliuokalani succeeded him, but her reign proved brief. Five days before the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown in 1893, in one of her last official acts, the queen approved legislation for the Hawaiian government to provide and regulate the production of electricity in Honolulu. HECO, the only bidder, was granted a 10-year lease to supply power to the people of Honolulu. The provisional Hawaiian government retained control over the original Nuuanu Electric Power Station to power the streetlights.

On 23 March 2018, the 130th anniversary of the illumination of Honolulu, an IEEE Milestone was dedicated to €œthe electric lighting of the Kingdom of Hawaii 1886€“1888.€ Spreckelss sugar mill on Maui no longer exists, but Iolani Palace is open to the public Monday through Saturday, 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.

An abridged version of this article appears in the April 2018 print issue as €œEdison and the King.€

Part of a continuing series looking at photographs of historical artifacts that embrace the boundless potential of technology...'

About the Author
Allison Marsh is an associate professor of history at the University of South Carolina and codirector of the Ann Johnson Institute for Science, Technology & Society there.


Interesting article. The Royal Hawaiians were an oddly progressive lot and were eager to learn the ways of the English and Americans. In the end, they got more than they bargained for. In the scant 115 years after Captain Cook landed on these shores, the Hawaiians lost everything and the Kingdom of Hawaii was gone. Some people still feel raw about that.
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Old 10-08-2018, 03:32 PM posted to rec.food.cooking
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Default dsi1 : Of Hawaiian Interest (Sugar + Electricity)



"GM" wrote in message
...

Pretty cool, I did not know this:

https://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-histo...me-electrified

Why Hawaii Got Electricity Before Most of the Rest of the World

In 1881, Thomas Edison convinced King Kalakaua that electric streetlamps
were superior to gas

'In 1881, King David Kalakaua of Hawaii went on a world tour, the first of
its kind for a sitting monarch. He circumnavigated the globe, stopping in
Asia, India, Egypt, Europe, and the United States. Among other things, he
sought to encourage immigration from the Asia-Pacific region, as Hawaiis
dwindling population had created a labor shortage on its sugar plantations.
But the king also wanted to introduce the culture of Hawaii to the world,
and he was curious about modern science and technology.

When he arrived in Paris in August 1881, the International Exposition of
Electricity was just getting under way. The exposition showcased the latest
advancements in electrical technology, such as dynamos, batteries, and
lighting. The first International Electrical Congress also convened during
the exposition, with participants presenting papers, discussing research,
and deciding on definitions for the ampere, the volt, the ohm, and other
electrical units.

King Kalakaua visited the exposition and was eager to learn more. George
Jones [PDF], cofounder of The New York Times, met the king in Vienna and
promised an introduction to Thomas Edison. That meeting took place on 25
September 1881 in Edisons New York City office. According to The Sun (New
York), the king and the inventor discussed not only the technicalities of
electric lights but also the business of selling power.

As described in The Sun, Hawaiis attorney general, William N. Armstrong,
told Edison that the kingdom had a volcano €œthat burns a thousand million
tons of coal a day.€ He jokingly added: €œYou could put your boilers on top
of the volcano and get power enough to supply the country.€ Apparently,
Edison didnt get the joke and asked if that was where Hawaii mined its
coal. Armstrong replied that in fact Hawaii imported its coal from
Australia, but the volcano was their great hope. Some people have since
speculated that Armstrongs remark indicated an early interest in geothermal
power, but it was more likely a failed attempt at humor.

In any event, Kalakaua explained to Edison that he was keen to upgrade the
kerosene lamps that lit the streets of Honolulu but couldnt decide between
gas and electricity. He wanted to see a full and practical trial of electric
lights before deciding. For that, the king had to wait another five years.

On 21 July 1886, Honolulu businessman Charles Otto Berger organized a
demonstration of electric lights at Iolani Palace. It drew a crowd of 5,000
spectators and included a Hawaiian band and a military parade.

A few months later, the royal residency and palace grounds were fully
illuminated for the kings birthday, on 16 November 1886. [An original
chandelier from the throne room is pictured at top, although these days it
uses LED lights.] Electric lighting extended to the streets of Honolulu when
Princess Kaiulani threw the switch on 23 March 1888.

Two of the greatest challenges to the electrification of Hawaii were getting
equipment to the island nation and establishing an appropriate fuel supply.
Machinery for the power plants came from the United States, including a
turbine manufactured by Leffel & Co., in Springfield, Ohio, dynamos from the
Thomson-Houston Co., in Massachusetts, and piping and valves from Risdon
Ironworks, in San Francisco.

As for the second challenge, hydroelectric power seemed a natural choice
given Hawaiis terrain and wet climate. The Nuuanu stream, about 6
kilometers northeast of the palace, fed the first electric light station
that powered Honolulus streetlights. But its water flow was uneven, and so
the next station to be built was coal fired.

Interestingly, the electrification of Iolani Palace was not the first
demonstration of electric lighting in the Hawaiian Islands. That distinction
goes to a sugar mill on Maui owned by sugar magnate Claus Spreckels. On 22
September 1881, Spreckels demonstrated electric lights at Mill No. 1 on his
plantation. He realized that artificial lighting would allow his workers to
process sugar cane around the clock, thus avoiding the expense of any
downtime during peak season. King Kalakaua and members of the royal
household inspected Spreckelss mills numerous times. Dowager Queen Emma,
the widow of King Kamehameha IV, reportedly exclaimed that the electric
lights were like daylight.

At the time, Spreckels held a near monopoly on the sugarcane industry in
Hawaii, thanks to his close ties to King Kalakaua. Spreckels had bought
political influence by making personal loans to the king and €œgifts€ to the
kingdom. When he was initially establishing his first sugar plantation, for
example, Spreckels sought water rights for irrigation, but the Hawaiian
cabinet balked. After the businessman made certain monetary donations,
however, a new cabinet was installed, and they promptly approved Spreckelss
water rights as well as the construction of a 65-km-long irrigation ditch,
the longest in the kingdom at the time.

By 1886, though, Spreckels and the king had fallen out. Kalakaua, looking to
diversify his kingdoms business base, viewed electricity and other new
technologies as a way to encourage investment. After the successful display
of electric streetlights, the Honolulu company E.O. Hall & Son began
installing generators in homes and on sugarcane plantations. By 1890, almost
800 Honolulu residences were enjoying the luxury of electricity, at a time
when most people in Europe and the United States still did without. A year
later, several officers of E.O. Hall formed the Hawaiian Electric Co.
(HECO).

The king didnt live long enough to see the completion of all that he had
set in motion. In 1891, while visiting California, he died of kidney
disease. His sister Liliuokalani succeeded him, but her reign proved brief.
Five days before the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown in 1893, in one of her
last official acts, the queen approved legislation for the Hawaiian
government to provide and regulate the production of electricity in
Honolulu. HECO, the only bidder, was granted a 10-year lease to supply power
to the people of Honolulu. The provisional Hawaiian government retained
control over the original Nuuanu Electric Power Station to power the
streetlights.

On 23 March 2018, the 130th anniversary of the illumination of Honolulu, an
IEEE Milestone was dedicated to €œthe electric lighting of the Kingdom of
Hawaii 1886€“1888.€ Spreckelss sugar mill on Maui no longer exists, but
Iolani Palace is open to the public Monday through Saturday, 9:00 a.m. to
4:00 p.m.

An abridged version of this article appears in the April 2018 print issue as
€œEdison and the King.€

Part of a continuing series looking at photographs of historical artifacts
that embrace the boundless potential of technology...'

About the Author
Allison Marsh is an associate professor of history at the University of
South Carolina and codirector of the Ann Johnson Institute for Science,
Technology & Society there.

==

Fascinating stuff! Thanks for sharing


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Old 10-08-2018, 03:34 PM posted to rec.food.cooking
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Default dsi1 : Of Hawaiian Interest (Sugar + Electricity)



"dsi1" wrote in message
...

On Thursday, August 9, 2018 at 1:28:16 PM UTC-10, GM wrote:
Pretty cool, I did not know this:

https://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-histo...me-electrified

Why Hawaii Got Electricity Before Most of the Rest of the World

In 1881, Thomas Edison convinced King Kalakaua that electric streetlamps
were superior to gas

'In 1881, King David Kalakaua of Hawaii went on a world tour, the first of
its kind for a sitting monarch. He circumnavigated the globe, stopping in
Asia, India, Egypt, Europe, and the United States. Among other things, he
sought to encourage immigration from the Asia-Pacific region, as Hawaiis
dwindling population had created a labor shortage on its sugar
plantations. But the king also wanted to introduce the culture of Hawaii
to the world, and he was curious about modern science and technology.

When he arrived in Paris in August 1881, the International Exposition of
Electricity was just getting under way. The exposition showcased the
latest advancements in electrical technology, such as dynamos, batteries,
and lighting. The first International Electrical Congress also convened
during the exposition, with participants presenting papers, discussing
research, and deciding on definitions for the ampere, the volt, the ohm,
and other electrical units.

King Kalakaua visited the exposition and was eager to learn more. George
Jones [PDF], cofounder of The New York Times, met the king in Vienna and
promised an introduction to Thomas Edison. That meeting took place on 25
September 1881 in Edisons New York City office. According to The Sun (New
York), the king and the inventor discussed not only the technicalities of
electric lights but also the business of selling power.

As described in The Sun, Hawaiis attorney general, William N. Armstrong,
told Edison that the kingdom had a volcano €œthat burns a thousand million
tons of coal a day.€ He jokingly added: €œYou could put your boilers on top
of the volcano and get power enough to supply the country.€ Apparently,
Edison didnt get the joke and asked if that was where Hawaii mined its
coal. Armstrong replied that in fact Hawaii imported its coal from
Australia, but the volcano was their great hope. Some people have since
speculated that Armstrongs remark indicated an early interest in
geothermal power, but it was more likely a failed attempt at humor.

In any event, Kalakaua explained to Edison that he was keen to upgrade the
kerosene lamps that lit the streets of Honolulu but couldnt decide
between gas and electricity. He wanted to see a full and practical trial
of electric lights before deciding. For that, the king had to wait another
five years.

On 21 July 1886, Honolulu businessman Charles Otto Berger organized a
demonstration of electric lights at Iolani Palace. It drew a crowd of
5,000 spectators and included a Hawaiian band and a military parade.

A few months later, the royal residency and palace grounds were fully
illuminated for the kings birthday, on 16 November 1886. [An original
chandelier from the throne room is pictured at top, although these days it
uses LED lights.] Electric lighting extended to the streets of Honolulu
when Princess Kaiulani threw the switch on 23 March 1888.

Two of the greatest challenges to the electrification of Hawaii were
getting equipment to the island nation and establishing an appropriate
fuel supply. Machinery for the power plants came from the United States,
including a turbine manufactured by Leffel & Co., in Springfield, Ohio,
dynamos from the Thomson-Houston Co., in Massachusetts, and piping and
valves from Risdon Ironworks, in San Francisco.

As for the second challenge, hydroelectric power seemed a natural choice
given Hawaiis terrain and wet climate. The Nuuanu stream, about 6
kilometers northeast of the palace, fed the first electric light station
that powered Honolulus streetlights. But its water flow was uneven, and
so the next station to be built was coal fired.

Interestingly, the electrification of Iolani Palace was not the first
demonstration of electric lighting in the Hawaiian Islands. That
distinction goes to a sugar mill on Maui owned by sugar magnate Claus
Spreckels. On 22 September 1881, Spreckels demonstrated electric lights at
Mill No. 1 on his plantation. He realized that artificial lighting would
allow his workers to process sugar cane around the clock, thus avoiding
the expense of any downtime during peak season. King Kalakaua and members
of the royal household inspected Spreckelss mills numerous times. Dowager
Queen Emma, the widow of King Kamehameha IV, reportedly exclaimed that the
electric lights were like daylight.

At the time, Spreckels held a near monopoly on the sugarcane industry in
Hawaii, thanks to his close ties to King Kalakaua. Spreckels had bought
political influence by making personal loans to the king and €œgifts€ to
the kingdom. When he was initially establishing his first sugar
plantation, for example, Spreckels sought water rights for irrigation, but
the Hawaiian cabinet balked. After the businessman made certain monetary
donations, however, a new cabinet was installed, and they promptly
approved Spreckelss water rights as well as the construction of a
65-km-long irrigation ditch, the longest in the kingdom at the time.

By 1886, though, Spreckels and the king had fallen out. Kalakaua, looking
to diversify his kingdoms business base, viewed electricity and other new
technologies as a way to encourage investment. After the successful
display of electric streetlights, the Honolulu company E.O. Hall & Son
began installing generators in homes and on sugarcane plantations. By
1890, almost 800 Honolulu residences were enjoying the luxury of
electricity, at a time when most people in Europe and the United States
still did without. A year later, several officers of E.O. Hall formed the
Hawaiian Electric Co. (HECO).

The king didnt live long enough to see the completion of all that he had
set in motion. In 1891, while visiting California, he died of kidney
disease. His sister Liliuokalani succeeded him, but her reign proved
brief. Five days before the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown in 1893, in
one of her last official acts, the queen approved legislation for the
Hawaiian government to provide and regulate the production of electricity
in Honolulu. HECO, the only bidder, was granted a 10-year lease to supply
power to the people of Honolulu. The provisional Hawaiian government
retained control over the original Nuuanu Electric Power Station to power
the streetlights.

On 23 March 2018, the 130th anniversary of the illumination of Honolulu,
an IEEE Milestone was dedicated to €œthe electric lighting of the Kingdom
of Hawaii 1886€“1888.€ Spreckelss sugar mill on Maui no longer exists, but
Iolani Palace is open to the public Monday through Saturday, 9:00 a.m. to
4:00 p.m.

An abridged version of this article appears in the April 2018 print issue
as €œEdison and the King.€

Part of a continuing series looking at photographs of historical artifacts
that embrace the boundless potential of technology...'

About the Author
Allison Marsh is an associate professor of history at the University of
South Carolina and codirector of the Ann Johnson Institute for Science,
Technology & Society there.


Interesting article. The Royal Hawaiians were an oddly progressive lot and
were eager to learn the ways of the English and Americans. In the end, they
got more than they bargained for. In the scant 115 years after Captain Cook
landed on these shores, the Hawaiians lost everything and the Kingdom of
Hawaii was gone. Some people still feel raw about that.

==

Understandable Has that independence been recovered at all? Pardon me
for my ignorance, but I knew nothing about Hawaii till I came here.


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Old 11-08-2018, 10:16 PM posted to rec.food.cooking
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Default dsi1 : Of Hawaiian Interest (Sugar + Electricity)

On 8/10/2018 7:34 AM, Ophelia wrote:


"dsi1" wrote in message
...

On Thursday, August 9, 2018 at 1:28:16 PM UTC-10, GM wrote:
Pretty cool, I did not know this:

https://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-histo...me-electrified

Why Hawaii Got Electricity Before Most of the Rest of the World

In 1881, Thomas Edison convinced King Kalakaua that electric streetlamps
were superior to gas

'In 1881, King David Kalakaua of Hawaii went on a world tour, the first of
its kind for a sitting monarch. He circumnavigated the globe, stopping in
Asia, India, Egypt, Europe, and the United States. Among other things, he
sought to encourage immigration from the Asia-Pacific region, as Hawaiis
dwindling population had created a labor shortage on its sugar
plantations. But the king also wanted to introduce the culture of Hawaii
to the world, and he was curious about modern science and technology.

When he arrived in Paris in August 1881, the International Exposition of
Electricity was just getting under way. The exposition showcased the
latest advancements in electrical technology, such as dynamos, batteries,
and lighting. The first International Electrical Congress also convened
during the exposition, with participants presenting papers, discussing
research, and deciding on definitions for the ampere, the volt, the ohm,
and other electrical units.

King Kalakaua visited the exposition and was eager to learn more. George
Jones [PDF], cofounder of The New York Times, met the king in Vienna and
promised an introduction to Thomas Edison. That meeting took place on 25
September 1881 in Edisons New York City office. According to The Sun (New
York), the king and the inventor discussed not only the technicalities of
electric lights but also the business of selling power.

As described in The Sun, Hawaiis attorney general, William N. Armstrong,
told Edison that the kingdom had a volcano €œthat burns a thousand million
tons of coal a day.€ He jokingly added: €œYou could put your boilers on top
of the volcano and get power enough to supply the country.€ Apparently,
Edison didnt get the joke and asked if that was where Hawaii mined its
coal. Armstrong replied that in fact Hawaii imported its coal from
Australia, but the volcano was their great hope. Some people have since
speculated that Armstrongs remark indicated an early interest in
geothermal power, but it was more likely a failed attempt at humor.

In any event, Kalakaua explained to Edison that he was keen to upgrade the
kerosene lamps that lit the streets of Honolulu but couldnt decide
between gas and electricity. He wanted to see a full and practical trial
of electric lights before deciding. For that, the king had to wait another
five years.

On 21 July 1886, Honolulu businessman Charles Otto Berger organized a
demonstration of electric lights at Iolani Palace. It drew a crowd of
5,000 spectators and included a Hawaiian band and a military parade.

A few months later, the royal residency and palace grounds were fully
illuminated for the kings birthday, on 16 November 1886. [An original
chandelier from the throne room is pictured at top, although these days it
uses LED lights.] Electric lighting extended to the streets of Honolulu
when Princess Kaiulani threw the switch on 23 March 1888.

Two of the greatest challenges to the electrification of Hawaii were
getting equipment to the island nation and establishing an appropriate
fuel supply. Machinery for the power plants came from the United States,
including a turbine manufactured by Leffel & Co., in Springfield, Ohio,
dynamos from the Thomson-Houston Co., in Massachusetts, and piping and
valves from Risdon Ironworks, in San Francisco.

As for the second challenge, hydroelectric power seemed a natural choice
given Hawaiis terrain and wet climate. The Nuuanu stream, about 6
kilometers northeast of the palace, fed the first electric light station
that powered Honolulus streetlights. But its water flow was uneven, and
so the next station to be built was coal fired.

Interestingly, the electrification of Iolani Palace was not the first
demonstration of electric lighting in the Hawaiian Islands. That
distinction goes to a sugar mill on Maui owned by sugar magnate Claus
Spreckels. On 22 September 1881, Spreckels demonstrated electric lights at
Mill No. 1 on his plantation. He realized that artificial lighting would
allow his workers to process sugar cane around the clock, thus avoiding
the expense of any downtime during peak season. King Kalakaua and members
of the royal household inspected Spreckelss mills numerous times. Dowager
Queen Emma, the widow of King Kamehameha IV, reportedly exclaimed that the
electric lights were like daylight.

At the time, Spreckels held a near monopoly on the sugarcane industry in
Hawaii, thanks to his close ties to King Kalakaua. Spreckels had bought
political influence by making personal loans to the king and €œgifts€ to
the kingdom. When he was initially establishing his first sugar
plantation, for example, Spreckels sought water rights for irrigation, but
the Hawaiian cabinet balked. After the businessman made certain monetary
donations, however, a new cabinet was installed, and they promptly
approved Spreckelss water rights as well as the construction of a
65-km-long irrigation ditch, the longest in the kingdom at the time.

By 1886, though, Spreckels and the king had fallen out. Kalakaua, looking
to diversify his kingdoms business base, viewed electricity and other new
technologies as a way to encourage investment. After the successful
display of electric streetlights, the Honolulu company E.O. Hall & Son
began installing generators in homes and on sugarcane plantations. By
1890, almost 800 Honolulu residences were enjoying the luxury of
electricity, at a time when most people in Europe and the United States
still did without. A year later, several officers of E.O. Hall formed the
Hawaiian Electric Co. (HECO).

The king didnt live long enough to see the completion of all that he had
set in motion. In 1891, while visiting California, he died of kidney
disease. His sister Liliuokalani succeeded him, but her reign proved
brief. Five days before the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown in 1893, in
one of her last official acts, the queen approved legislation for the
Hawaiian government to provide and regulate the production of electricity
in Honolulu. HECO, the only bidder, was granted a 10-year lease to supply
power to the people of Honolulu. The provisional Hawaiian government
retained control over the original Nuuanu Electric Power Station to power
the streetlights.

On 23 March 2018, the 130th anniversary of the illumination of Honolulu,
an IEEE Milestone was dedicated to €œthe electric lighting of the Kingdom
of Hawaii 1886€“1888.€ Spreckelss sugar mill on Maui no longer exists, but
Iolani Palace is open to the public Monday through Saturday, 9:00 a.m. to
4:00 p.m.

An abridged version of this article appears in the April 2018 print issue
as €œEdison and the King.€

Part of a continuing series looking at photographs of historical artifacts
that embrace the boundless potential of technology...'

About the Author
Allison Marsh is an associate professor of history at the University of
South Carolina and codirector of the Ann Johnson Institute for Science,
Technology & Society there.


Interesting article. The Royal Hawaiians were an oddly progressive lot and
were eager to learn the ways of the English and Americans. In the end, they
got more than they bargained for. In the scant 115 years after Captain Cook
landed on these shores, the Hawaiians lost everything and the Kingdom of
Hawaii was gone. Some people still feel raw about that.

==

Understandable Has that independence been recovered at all? Pardon me
for my ignorance, but I knew nothing about Hawaii till I came here.



They are better off than if they had been wiped out by the Japanese
during WWII, which surely would have happened if it was not a US base.


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Old 12-08-2018, 09:02 AM posted to rec.food.cooking
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On Friday, August 10, 2018 at 4:38:30 AM UTC-10, Ophelia wrote:
==

Understandable Has that independence been recovered at all? Pardon me
for my ignorance, but I knew nothing about Hawaii till I came here.


Not much is going on with the Hawaiian Sovereignty Movement. That fire burned brightly in the 70's but it's fading fast. Mostly, it's wishful dreaming. My guess is that nobody will care in the future. That's the breaks.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LC7Xoe7DDSU
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On Saturday, August 11, 2018 at 11:16:38 AM UTC-10, Taxed and Spent wrote:

They are better off than if they had been wiped out by the Japanese
during WWII, which surely would have happened if it was not a US base.


It is important that the people doing the land grabbing and oppression believe that they are doing God's work and that they are morally right. That's always been the case. So what else is new?
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"dsi1" wrote in message
...

On Friday, August 10, 2018 at 4:38:30 AM UTC-10, Ophelia wrote:
==

Understandable Has that independence been recovered at all? Pardon me
for my ignorance, but I knew nothing about Hawaii till I came here.


Not much is going on with the Hawaiian Sovereignty Movement. That fire
burned brightly in the 70's but it's fading fast. Mostly, it's wishful
dreaming. My guess is that nobody will care in the future. That's the
breaks.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LC7Xoe7DDSU
==

That is a shame

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Old 15-08-2018, 10:26 AM posted to rec.food.cooking
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"dsi1" wrote in message
...

On Friday, August 10, 2018 at 4:38:30 AM UTC-10, Ophelia wrote:
==

Understandable Has that independence been recovered at all? Pardon me
for my ignorance, but I knew nothing about Hawaii till I came here.


Not much is going on with the Hawaiian Sovereignty Movement. That fire
burned brightly in the 70's but it's fading fast. Mostly, it's wishful
dreaming. My guess is that nobody will care in the future. That's the
breaks.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LC7Xoe7DDSU

==

Ahh just seen this! Thanks

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"dsi1" wrote in message
...

On Friday, August 10, 2018 at 4:38:30 AM UTC-10, Ophelia wrote:
==

Understandable Has that independence been recovered at all? Pardon me
for my ignorance, but I knew nothing about Hawaii till I came here.


Not much is going on with the Hawaiian Sovereignty Movement. That fire
burned brightly in the 70's but it's fading fast. Mostly, it's wishful
dreaming. My guess is that nobody will care in the future. That's the
breaks.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LC7Xoe7DDSU

==

Lovely video and I agree with the sentiment completely. We ought to have
the EU off our back very soon ... fingers crossed.



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Old 15-08-2018, 10:35 AM posted to rec.food.cooking
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On Wed, 15 Aug 2018 10:28:52 +0100, "Ophelia"
wrote:



"dsi1" wrote in message
...

On Friday, August 10, 2018 at 4:38:30 AM UTC-10, Ophelia wrote:
==

Understandable Has that independence been recovered at all? Pardon me
for my ignorance, but I knew nothing about Hawaii till I came here.


Not much is going on with the Hawaiian Sovereignty Movement. That fire
burned brightly in the 70's but it's fading fast. Mostly, it's wishful
dreaming. My guess is that nobody will care in the future. That's the
breaks.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LC7Xoe7DDSU

==

Lovely video and I agree with the sentiment completely. We ought to have
the EU off our back very soon ... fingers crossed.


But on which terms... The UK was part of the EU. Now the UK will be
EU's little bitch. I wonder what's worse
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Old 15-08-2018, 10:38 AM posted to rec.food.cooking
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"Druce" wrote in message ...

On Wed, 15 Aug 2018 10:28:52 +0100, "Ophelia"
wrote:



"dsi1" wrote in message
...

On Friday, August 10, 2018 at 4:38:30 AM UTC-10, Ophelia wrote:
==

Understandable Has that independence been recovered at all? Pardon me
for my ignorance, but I knew nothing about Hawaii till I came here.


Not much is going on with the Hawaiian Sovereignty Movement. That fire
burned brightly in the 70's but it's fading fast. Mostly, it's wishful
dreaming. My guess is that nobody will care in the future. That's the
breaks.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LC7Xoe7DDSU

==

Lovely video and I agree with the sentiment completely. We ought to have
the EU off our back very soon ... fingers crossed.


But on which terms... The UK was part of the EU. Now the UK will be
EU's little bitch. I wonder what's worse

==

It better not be!!! Whoever agrees to that will soon find their arses
kicked out.


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Old 15-08-2018, 10:44 AM posted to rec.food.cooking
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Default dsi1 : Of Hawaiian Interest (Sugar + Electricity)

On Wed, 15 Aug 2018 10:38:55 +0100, "Ophelia"
wrote:



"Druce" wrote in message ...

On Wed, 15 Aug 2018 10:28:52 +0100, "Ophelia"
wrote:



"dsi1" wrote in message
...

On Friday, August 10, 2018 at 4:38:30 AM UTC-10, Ophelia wrote:
==

Understandable Has that independence been recovered at all? Pardon me
for my ignorance, but I knew nothing about Hawaii till I came here.


Not much is going on with the Hawaiian Sovereignty Movement. That fire
burned brightly in the 70's but it's fading fast. Mostly, it's wishful
dreaming. My guess is that nobody will care in the future. That's the
breaks.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LC7Xoe7DDSU

==

Lovely video and I agree with the sentiment completely. We ought to have
the EU off our back very soon ... fingers crossed.


But on which terms... The UK was part of the EU. Now the UK will be
EU's little bitch. I wonder what's worse

==

It better not be!!! Whoever agrees to that will soon find their arses
kicked out.


But aren't your hardliners, like Boris Johnson and that Brexit
minister, losing?
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Old 15-08-2018, 12:25 PM posted to rec.food.cooking
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"Druce" wrote in message ...

On Wed, 15 Aug 2018 10:38:55 +0100, "Ophelia"
wrote:



"Druce" wrote in message
.. .

On Wed, 15 Aug 2018 10:28:52 +0100, "Ophelia"
wrote:



"dsi1" wrote in message
...

On Friday, August 10, 2018 at 4:38:30 AM UTC-10, Ophelia wrote:
==

Understandable Has that independence been recovered at all? Pardon
me
for my ignorance, but I knew nothing about Hawaii till I came here.


Not much is going on with the Hawaiian Sovereignty Movement. That fire
burned brightly in the 70's but it's fading fast. Mostly, it's wishful
dreaming. My guess is that nobody will care in the future. That's the
breaks.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LC7Xoe7DDSU

==

Lovely video and I agree with the sentiment completely. We ought to have
the EU off our back very soon ... fingers crossed.


But on which terms... The UK was part of the EU. Now the UK will be
EU's little bitch. I wonder what's worse

==

It better not be!!! Whoever agrees to that will soon find their arses
kicked out.


But aren't your hardliners, like Boris Johnson and that Brexit
minister, losing?

=

LOL no!!!!!


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Old 15-08-2018, 12:42 PM posted to rec.food.cooking
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On Wed, 15 Aug 2018 12:25:02 +0100, "Ophelia"
wrote:



"Druce" wrote in message ...

On Wed, 15 Aug 2018 10:38:55 +0100, "Ophelia"
wrote:



"Druce" wrote in message
. ..

On Wed, 15 Aug 2018 10:28:52 +0100, "Ophelia"
wrote:

Lovely video and I agree with the sentiment completely. We ought to have
the EU off our back very soon ... fingers crossed.


But on which terms... The UK was part of the EU. Now the UK will be
EU's little bitch. I wonder what's worse

==

It better not be!!! Whoever agrees to that will soon find their arses
kicked out.


But aren't your hardliners, like Boris Johnson and that Brexit
minister, losing?

=

LOL no!!!!!


Ok, you'll know better than me. I'll wait and see


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